10 year Rural Sanitation Strategy (2019-29)

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The Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation (DDWS), Ministry of Jal Shakti, GoI launched the 10 Year Rural Sanitation Strategy (2019-2029).

Brief Background

Since the launch of the SBM-G in 2014, over 10 crore toilets have been built in rural areas; over 5.9 lakh villages, 699 districts, and 35 States/UTs have declared themselves Open Defecation Free (ODF).

This strategy has been prepared by DDWS, in consultation with State Governments and other stakeholders, and it lays down a framework to guide local governments, policy makers, implementers and other relevant stakeholders in their planning for ODF Plus, where everyone uses a toilet, and every village has access to solid and liquid waste management.

Strategy Focuses on :

  • Sustaining the sanitation behavior change that has been achieved under the Swachh Bharat Mission Grameen (SBM-G),
  • Ensuring that no one is left behind,
  • Increasing access to solid and liquid waste management.

The strategy emphasizes on the need for States to continue their efforts to sustain the gains of the SBM-G through

  • Capacity strengthening
  • IEC (Information, education and communication)
  • Organic waste management
  • Plastic waste management
  • Grey water management and Black water management.

The strategy also speaks about potential collaborations with development partners, civil society and inter-government partnerships. It also highlights innovative models for sanitation financing.

Public financing has played an important role in the ODF journey but for the maintenance of toilets and infrastructure, the need is there for innovative models for sanitation financing.

Way Forward:

  • It is because of the SBM-G that India is now an inspiration, in terms of sanitation for other countries.
  • To mark the 150th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi on 2nd October 2019, the Central government is ready to dedicate a Swachh Bharat to India.
  • To ensure this, the State Governments have been advised to take a note that no one is left behind, and in case any household does not have access to a toilet, they are facilitated to build a toilet on priority.

India has become an inspiration in terms of sanitation for other countries and the same needs to be sustained as well as enhanced.


Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin)

“The Swachh Bharat Mission, launched in October 2014, consists of two sub-missions – the Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) (SBM-G), which will be implemented in rural areas, and the Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban), which will be implemented in urban areas.”

SBM-G seeks to eliminate open defecation in rural areas by 2019 through improving access to sanitation.  It also seeks to generate awareness to motivate communities to adopt sustainable sanitation practices, and encourage the use of appropriate technologies for sanitation.


  • Improving the quality of life in rural areas through promoting cleanliness and eliminating open defecation by 2019,
  • Motivating communities and panchayati raj institutions to adopt sustainable sanitation practices,
  • Encouraging appropriate technologies for sustainable sanitation, and
  • Developing community managed solid and liquid waste management systems.


Funding for SBM-G will be through budgetary allocations of the central and state governments, the Swachh Bharat Kosh, and multilateral agencies.

The Swachh Bharat Kosh has been established to collect funds from non-governmental sources.


The key components of the implementation of SBM-G will include:

  • Start up activities including preparation of state plans,
  • IEC activities,
  • Capacity building of functionaries,
  • Construction of household toilets,
  • Construction of community sanitary complexes,
  • A revolving fund at the district level to assist Self Help Groups and others in providing cheap finance to their members
  • Funds for rural sanitary marts, where materials for the construction of toilets, etc., may be purchased, and
  • Funds for solid and liquid waste management.

Under SBM-G, construction of toilets in government schools and aganwadis will be done by the Ministry of Human Resource Development and Ministry of Women and Child Development, respectively.  Previously, the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation was responsible for this.


Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban)

“The Swachh Bharat Mission – Urban (SBM-U), launched on 2nd October 2014 aims at making urban India free from open defecation and achieving 100% scientific management of municipal solid waste in 4,041 statutory towns in the country.”


  • Elimination of open defecation
  • Eradication of Manual Scavenging
  • Modern and Scientific Municipal Solid Waste Management
  • To effect behavioral change regarding healthy sanitation practices
  • Generate awareness about sanitation and its linkage with public health
  • Capacity Augmentation for ULB’s
  • To create an enabling environment for private sector participation in Capex (capital expenditure) and Opex (operation and maintenance).

The Mission has the following components

  • Household toilets, including conversion of insanitary latrines into pour-flush latrines;
  • Community toilets
  • Public toilets
  • Solid waste management
  • IEC & Public Awareness
  • Capacity building and Administrative & Office Expenses (A&OE)


Comprehensive Sanitation Planning, which includes

  • City level sanitation plans
  • State Sanitation Concept
  • State Sanitation Strategy
  • Behavioral Change Strategy and IEC (Information, Education & Communication )
  • Enabling Environment for Private Sector Participation
  • Capacity Building
  • Special Focus Groups


The estimated cost of implementation of SBM (Urban) based on unit and per capita costs for its various components is Rs. 62,009 Crore. The Government of India share as per approved funding pattern amounts to Rs. 14,623 Crore. In addition, a minimum additional amount equivalent to 25% of GoI funding, amounting to Rs. 4,874 Crore shall be contributed by the States as State/ULB share.

The balance funds is proposed to be generated through various other sources of fund which are, but not limited to: Private Sector Participation ; Additional Resources from State Government/ULB ; Beneficiary Share ; User Charges ; Land Leveraging ; Innovative revenue streams ; Swachh Bharat Kosh ; Corporate Social Responsibility ; Market Borrowing ; External Assistance.

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